Collecting and sharing black and white analog photographic formulas
Formulas contribution over time
We must caution you regarding safety. It is advisable whenever one is mixing chemistry to take proper precautions. Always use protective gear (goggles, gloves, apron, etc.). Always be certain to work in a well ventilated area. Always have extinguishing devices at hand in the event of an emergency. Always have an escape plan if the need for a rapid exit becomes necessary. Keep an MSDS for all chemicals present as this will not only be useful in medical assistance but also for emergency responders in the case that something were to happen.
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An inexpensive fine-grain developer as published in “British Journal Photographic Almanac 1941”. The following is an inexpensive fine-grain developer which is stated never the-less to give very excellent results. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 37 grams Sodium sulphite anhydrous 136 grams Kodalk or Sodium metaborate 57 grams Potassium bromide 12.5 grams Water to make 1 liter For use,
This is an exceedingly energetic developer intended for plates which have received minimum exposures. On account of the yellowish colour of the image even very weak negatives may have good printing contrast. Working solutions Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Solution A Metol 2 grams Potassium metabisulfite 6 grams Pyrogallic acid 6 grams Water to make 0.5 liters Solution B Sodium carbonate crystalline 100
This developer gives negatives of soft gradation with maximum detail in the shadows. Development is slow, but the speed may be modified by altering the dilution. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 3 grams Sodium sulfite crystalline 25 grams Sodium carbonate crystalline 50 grams Potassium bromide 0.5 grams Water to make 0.5 liters For use, dilute 1:3.
Ilford pyro-soda developer for plates or films. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Pyrogallic acid 25 grams Potassium metabisulfite 6 grams Water to make 0.25 liters The potassium metabisulfite should be first dissolved in the water previous to adding the pyro. Working Solutions Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Solution A Stock solution 50 mililiters Water to make 0.5 liters Solutio
Desensitizing is a process whereby the sensitivity of a plate or film is depressed, so that the development can take place by a brighter darkroom illumination. At the present time (1943) the following desensitizers are available: [wptabs type="accordion" style="wpui-light"] [wptabtitle]Desensitizers with Dyeing Properties[/wptabtitle] [wptabcontent]The most popular member of this group is phenosafranine (Pinasafrol,
These chemicals, which should be added to the developer in quantities from 0.1–0.2 grams per litre, impart to the developer valuable additional properties. They have strong anti-fogging properties. With development papers, developer improvers produce purer and deeper image tones. Developer improvers help to maintain the tone and brilliance of a print, which has received longer or shorter development time, owing to in
When the developer is prepared with tap water, the solution usually appears cloudy, which fact is due to the lime salts of the water combining with alkali and forming a precipitate. This turbidity has no effect on the properties of the developer, but if the lime content of the water is high, it may result in an unpleasant deposit on the surface of the film. In such cases the chalk precipitate should be allowed to set
Positive developer. When a brown-tone developer of this type is used, it does not mean that brown tones will be produced on any paper; not all papers are suitable for brown tones. This developer should be used for those papers which are especially designed to produce brown tones, as will be indicated on the label or instruction leaflet. Focal paper developer for warm-black tones, stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mi
This positive developer is suitable (or all papers, which are intended to give warm-black tones, e.g., chamois contact paper (gas-light), portrait contact and enlarging papers (chloro-bromide). Focal paper developer for warm-black tones, working solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 2 grams Sodium sulphite anhydrous 37.5 grams Hydroquinone 6 grams Sodium carbonate anhydrous 37.5 grams Potassium b
Energetic positive developer giving vigorous results. Producing pure black to blue-black tones on chloride paper, and pure black tones on bromide enlarging paper. Focal paper developer for blue-black tones, working solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 2 grams Sodium sulphite anhydrous 25 grams Hydroquinone 6 grams Sodium carbonate anhydrous 37.5 grams Potassium bromide 0.5 gram Water to make 1 l
An inexpensive and generally useful positive developer for both printing and enlarging papers. The formula is of good service when the photographer desires one developer to suffice for all purposes, thus avoiding the preparation of a special formula for each type of paper. Focal paper developer Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 2 grams Sodium sulphite anhydrous 25 grams Hydroquinone 3 grams Sodium car
As a negative and positive developer, amidol enjoys a certain popularity on account of its freedom from fog, good tonal reproduction and universal use, as well as its capacity for producing a deep velvety black on bromide papers. Focal Amidol universal developer, stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Sodium sulphite, anhydrous 25 grams Potassium bromide 1 gram Water to make 1 liter For use take 1