Fine Grain Developer

An inexpensive fine-grain developer as published in “British Journal Photographic Almanac 1941”. The following is an inexpensive fine-grain developer which is stated never the-less to give very excellent results. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in...

ID4

This is an exceedingly energetic developer intended for plates which have received minimum exposures. On account of the yellowish colour of the image even very weak negatives may have good printing contrast. Working solutions Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in...

ID3

This developer gives negatives of soft gradation with maximum detail in the shadows. Development is slow, but the speed may be modified by altering the dilution. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Metol 3 grams Sodium sulfite crystalline 25...

ID1

Ilford pyro-soda developer for plates or films. Stock solution Ingredient Quantity Mix chemicals in order. Pyrogallic acid 25 grams Potassium metabisulfite 6 grams Water to make 0.25 liters The potassium metabisulfite should be first dissolved in the water previous to...

Desensitizers

Desensitizing is a process whereby the sensitivity of a plate or film is depressed, so that the development can take place by a brighter darkroom illumination. At the present time (1943) the following desensitizers are available: [wptabs type="accordion"...

Developer Improvers

These chemicals, which should be added to the developer in quantities from 0.1–0.2 grams per litre, impart to the developer valuable additional properties. They have strong anti-fogging properties. With development papers, developer improvers produce purer and deeper...

Prevention of Lime Deposits

When the developer is prepared with tap water, the solution usually appears cloudy, which fact is due to the lime salts of the water combining with alkali and forming a precipitate. This turbidity has no effect on the properties of the developer, but if the lime...

Focal Paper Developer

An inexpensive and generally useful positive developer for both printing and enlarging papers. The formula is of good service when the photographer desires one developer to suffice for all purposes, thus avoiding the preparation of a special formula for each type of...

Focal Universal MQ

An all-around developer for negatives and positives, producing brilliant contrast. By varying the dilution, it may be used for dish or tank development. Recommended for all general work as a good single solution developer. Making up: Dissolve the...

Metol poisoning

The skin troubles (similar to eczema) attributed to metol are exclusively due to an impurity (NN—dimethyl paraphenylene diamine) and do not appear to have been experienced with metol of French make. —L.P. Clerc, “Photography—Theory and Practice”, 2nd edition, Pitmann...

Safelight

It may be laid down that there is no really non-actinic illumination in the true sense of the word; that is to say, that there is no light, whatever may be its spectral distribution and however weak in intensity it may be, which will not fog a photographic emulsion if...

EWL Formula 19

Tanning developer for color separation positives (dye-tone process). Dilute 1:5 and develop about 8 minutes at 18.5°C. This formula also may be used at a dilution of 1:8 and development carried on for 15 minutes.

EWL Formula 18

Soft working developer designed for color separation negatives. For tray processing pre-soak the film for 2 minutes in plain water. Do not dilute and develop for 5–7 minutes. For tank use, dilute 1:1 and develop for 8–12 minutes at 21°C. Note: formula...

EWL Formula 16

High contrast developer for films. The sodium hydroxide should not he dissolved in warm water, as spattering is apt to occur. This developer does not keep and should he freshly made. Mix 1:1 and develop about 2 minutes at 18.5°...

EWL Formula 14

Glycin carbonate formula for slow tank development. Dilute 3:29 and develop 35—60 minutes at 18.5°C. This developer produces good-looking negatives and is favored by those who like to put their film in the developer and forget about it for an hour or...

EWL Formula 13

Glycin and tri-sodium phosphate developer for films and papers. For tray dilute 1:4 and develop for 5–7 minutes. For tank use dilute 1:9 and develop for 7–11 minutes or dilute 1:14 and develop for 10–14 minutes or dilute 1:24 and develop for 15–19...

EWL Formula 12

With this formula, the shadows seem to come up very rapidly during development so that if it is desired to cut down the developing time to give a soft negative this can be done without too great loss of emulsion speed. This developer is said to be suitable for...

EWL Formula 11

Pyrocatechin is well suited to development of color separation positives for dye-tone transparencies. For tray development dilute 1:2:1. Develop 4—6 minutes at 18.5°C.

EWL Formula 10

Chlorhydroquinone alone is not often used as a negative developer, but the following formula gives good results. For strong contrast, dilute with 3 parts of water. For softer negatives dilute 1:5. Add 5 mililiters of 10% potassium bromide solution to...

EWL Formula 9

An aminophenol-type developer which gives results similar to metol-hydroquinone but which can he used by some who are subject to metol poisoning. * Gradol is the hemisulfate of para-aminophenol and has a molecular weight of 158.14. You can substitute...

EWL Formula 8

A concentrated developer formula similar to Rodinal. When solution is complete, filter and add with vigorous stirring a solution of 1 part sodium hydroxide in 5 parts water until the solid which first forms is just re-dissolved. Dilute to 1 liter and...

EWL Formula 7 (non-staining pyro)

Pyrogallol developer with a very small tendency for staining. To make Solution A, the sodium sulphite and sodium metabisulphite should be put into hot water at the same time and the solution brought to a boil. Boil for a minute or two, cool and...

EWL Formula 6 (Acetone Pyro)

Variation of a pyro developer with acetone. For tank use, mix 12.5 mililiters stock solution with 0.58 liters of water and 31 mililiters acetone. Develop for 25–35 minutes at 21°C. For tray use, mix 20 mililiters stock solution with 0.28 liters of...

EWL Formula 5 (Pyro Metol)

Staining developer made from Pyrogallol and Metol. For tank use dilute 1:1:1:13 (sic!) and develop for 12–18 minutes at 18.5°C. For tray use dilute 1:1:1:8 and develop for 5–8 minutes at 18.5°C. As a rule, contrast and density may be increased by...

EWL Formula 4 (Pyro soda)

Classic pyro developer. For use in tank, take 162 mililiters each of Solution A, B and C and add water to make 3.78 liters. Developing time about 10–15 minutes at 18.5°C. For tray use, dilute 1:1:1:7 and develop about 6 minutes at 18.5°C. As a rule,...

EWL Formula 3

There are innumerable variations of standard metol-hydroquinone formulas and these may he found in the literature issued by film manufacturers. In general, the ratio of metol to hydroquinone is 1:2 for films and 1:3 or 1:4 for papers. If the photographer wants more...

EWL Formula 2

On subjects having violent contrasts where it is necessary to show detail in both highlights and shadows, an acid-amidol developer can be used. With this developer at 18.5°C, the image usually appears in 10 to 15 minutes and the total time of...

EWL Formula 1

Typical amidol formula for tray development from Edmund W. Lowe. These developers should be made up just before use, but can be kept for a few days in full, tightly closed bottles if necessary. The keeping qualities are...

G222A

Developer for film and plates to be used in the tropics. Development times (in minutes) at 30°C (sic!) for tray and tank development: 1.5, 2. Note: After processing in this developer, the film or plate should be transferred first to a stop bath (e.g....

G214

A normal contrast developer suitable for sheet films. Development times (in minutes) at 20°C for tray and tank development: “Gevachrome 32”, “Gevapan 30” and “Gevapan 33” — 4, 5; “Gevapan 36” — 6, 8.

G504

Reducer for very hard negatives such as over-developed and over-exposed ones. The same as G503, this reducer attacks the highlights first but it has more predictable results. Use distilled water if available and add 1.5 mililiters of a 1% of common...

G503

Super-proportional reducer for very hard negatives such as over-developed and over-exposed negatives. This reducers will attack the heavier densities (highlights) first. Note: The solution must be used immediately after it has been prepared, as it soon...

G502

Reducer for over-developed negatives. Both Solution A and Solution B keeps well. For use take 100 mililiters of water, add 15 mililiters of Solution A, then 15 mililiters of Solution B. After reduction, fix for several minutes in an acid fixing bath...

G501

Reducer formula suitable for over-exposed and/or over-developed negatives that are fogged or too dense. For use take 100 mililiters of Solution A and add 5 mililiters of Solution B. If the contrast needs to be increased the increase the proportion of...

G354

Hardening bath for plates, films and papers. For use after fixing. Immerse for between 10 and 20 minutes. This hardening bath is especially recommended when a negative is to be subjected to various chemical treatments such as reduction, intensification...

G527

Intensifier for very weak negatives, free of fog or veil. A few minutes before use, mix 5 parts of Solution A with 5 parts of Solution B. Shake the mixture and then add 1 part of glacial acetic acid (or 4 parts of 28% acetic acid). The negative will...

G526

Intensifier for use with under-exposed negatives, or in cases of under-development even of over-exposed negatives. Dissolve the mercuric chloride in warm water and allow to cool, but do not stir nor shake the container before use. The solution will...

IN4

Chromium intensifier for approximately proportional intensification of thin negatives whether arising from slight under-exposure or under-development. Dilute 1:10. Harden the negative first in the formalin hardener. Bleach thoroughly at 18–21°C...

D16

Normal tank developer for motion picture positive films. Do not dilute. Develop for 5–10 minutes at 18°C according to the contrast required and the degree of agitation employed. Keeping properties: Solution in full stoppered bottle: 6 month. Solution...

SH1

Alkaline formalin hardener for films and plates, for use after development. Recommended for the treatment of negatives when the emulsion would otherwise be softened considerably by chemical treatments as in the removal of several types of stains, intensification or...

IN1

Mercury intensifier for film and plates giving increased maximum density with little intensification of intermediate tones. Also known as Monckhoven's intensifier. The mercury intensifier is recommended where extreme intensification is desired but where permanence of...

F5

Kodak tropical acid hardening fixing bath for films and plates. Films and plates will be fixed properly in 10 minutes (cleared in 5 minutes) if a freshly prepared fixing bath has been used. Prolonged immersion at high temperatures is harmful. The bath...

FX15

FX15 offers noticeably enhanced acutance but, unlike many other acutance developers, does not compress the mid tones — an unfortunate effect of Buetler, FX1 and FX2. Rather, it gives a complete range of tones from rich detailed shadows through to delicate smooth...

FX37

This developer is intended for use with T-Max and Delta films, although it will produce excellent results with traditional emulsions. FX37 is designed to produce very sharp, tonally rich negatives with an EFS speed increase (½ – ⅔ of a stop). It is not a fine grain...

DK50

Normal-contrast dish or tank developer for plates and films. Portrait, commercial and photomechanical. Recommended for Kodak Wash-Off Relief Film and for the making of colour separation negatives from colour transparencies. Do not dilute. Develop for...

SB5

Formula for a non-swelling, acid rinse bath. To make 28% acetic acid from glacial acetic acid, dilute 3 parts of glacial acetic acid with 8 parts of water. If it is desired to use sodium sulphate crystals instead of the desiccated sulphate, use 105...

SB4

Tropical hardening bath for films and plates, for use after development, at temperatures from 24°C to 35°C. Is recommended to be used in conjunction with Kodak Tropical Developer DK15. If crystalline sodium sulfate is preferred instead of desiccated...

D25

Formula for developer that produce grain comparable with that obtained with the popular paraphenylene-diamine-glycin developer (see Germain Fine Grain Formula), but Kodak D25 developer is non-toxic and non-staining. Do not dilute. Develop for 15–20...

DK25R

This formula is a replenisher for Kodak D25 and Kodak D23 developers. This replenisher is also known as Kodak D25R. [table id=36...

D23

This developer produces negatives of speed and graininess comparable to Kodak D76 developer. The developer may be replenished with Kodak DK25R Replenisher: 22ml should be added for each roll of film processed. Most consistent results are obtained if it is added after...

D19R

Replenisher formula for Kodak D19 developer. Use this replenisher undiluted. After each 8×10 sheet of film add 25 mililiters of replenisher. The total volume of replenisher added should not exceed the original volume of the...

D19

High capacity, clean working, fast acting. Provides higher than normal contrast and speed, higher than average graininess. This is a high-contrast developer with good keeping properties and high capacity. It is especially recommended for continuous-tone scientific and...

DK15

One of Kodak tropical developer for negatives, similar with Focal Universal MQ. It has the property of preventing excessive softening and swelling of the gelatine, making it especially suited to development at high temperatures and particularly for tropical...

D11

D-11 is a vigorous film-and-plate developer with good keeping properties, for general use where high contrast is desired. D-11 is recommended for use with high-contrast films for reproducing written or printed matter, line drawings, and similar material. [table id=30...

ID68R

Replenisher for Ilford ID68 developer. Add to the developer tank as required to maintain the level of the solution. Under normal working conditions, where the tank is in regular use, a total quantity of replenisher equal to that of the original...

ID68

Ilford's PQ borax formula for films and plates. Gives grain fine enough for all normal requirements without loss of emulsion speed. Do not dilute. Develop for 8 minutes. When needed use Ilford ID68R as...

ID11

Fine grain developer from Ilford with the same formula as Kodak D76. Do not dilute. Develop for 6–11 minutes at 20°C. When needed replenish with Ilford...

ID2

General purpose, high contrast developer from Ilford. For tray development, dilute 1:2 and develop 3 to 5 minutes at 20°C. For tank development dilute 1:5 and develop 6 to 9 minutes at 20°C.

G262

For warm and brown tones on “Vitex” and “Gevatone”. Dilute 1:2–6 according to the image tone required (from warm black to red). Develop for 2–6 minutes at 20°C. This developer gives the same image tones as the Gevaert G261 but requires 1.5–4 times the...

G261

Developer for brown and red tones on “Vitex” paper. Do not dilute and develop for 2–3 minutes at 20°C to obtain warm black tones. By diluting the solution the following effects can be obtained at 20°C: brown:dilute 1:1–2 and develop for 4–8...

G253

Warm tone paper developer tending to produce slightly softer gradation than the normal paper developers and intended as a portrait print developer. Warmer tones may be obtained with the addition of increased potassium bromide over and above the amount...

G251

G251 is a universal MQ normal contrat developer for neutral black tones on contact and enlarging papers. Also suitable for films and plates developed in a tray. Use at full strength. Diluted 1:1 will give softer results provided that the exposure time...

G215

Developer for sheet and films. Gives maximum speed and normal to soft results. Do not dilute. Development times at 20°C for tray and tank developing: Sheet films (not “Gevapan 36”) — 7 minutes and 9 minutes; “Gevachrome 32” and “Gevapan 30” — 4 minutes...

Du58D

Chlorhydroquinone is used as a developing agent in this DuPont formula, to produce warm black and brown tones on Varigram paper. Dilute stock solution with water 1:1 for use. It is necessary to develop for 4 minutes at 20°C to obtain the maximum black...

Du56D

This is a rapid developer for commercial use with fast enlarging papers, producing neutral black tones. Dilute 1:2 and develop for 1–2 minutes at 20°C.

Du55D

A standard DuPont developer for warm tones on enlarging papers. Liberal use of Potassium bromide is permissible, with a range of 5–13 grams of bromide per liter of stock solution. When excess bromide is added to the developer, overexposure with 1.5...

Du54D

An active developer formula for use on chloride contact papers to produce cold blue-black tones. Dilute one part of stock solution with two parts of water and develop prints from 1.5–2.5 minutes at 20°C.

D52

Soft working warm tone paper developer from Kodak. Dilute 1:1 and develop for about 2 minutes. More bromide may be added if warmer tones are desired. For a softer print, dilute 1:3. To increase the warmth, add bromide up to double the amount in the...

D76

Fine grain developer from Kodak. Same formula as DuPont 6D and Ilford ID11. Do not dilute. Develop for 4–8 minutes. When needed replenish with Kodak D76R.

F16

Chrome alum hardening fixing bath recommended for hot weather processing. Also known as Ansco 202. This formula, when freshly mixed, is especially recommended for use during hot weather, but it rapidly loses its hardening properties, with or without...

AN47a

Replenisher formula for Ansco AN47. Also known as AN47R. Add 2.1ml of replenisher to Ansco 47 for each roll of 120 film (or equivalent) developed. Maintain original volume of developer, discarding if necessary some used developer. No increase in...

AN47

A long-life, clean working formula which will give excellent results as a standard film developer for either tray or tank development. Develop in tank for 6–8 minutes at 20°C with occasional agitation. In tray, develop for 5–7 minutes at 20°C. For...

AN17R

This formula provides a replenisher for Ansco AN17 developer. Also known as Ansco AN17a.

G206

Fine grain developer. Requires no increase in exposure. Standard developer for roll and miniature films. Dissolve in the following order: metol, about 10 grams sulphite, hydroquinone, borax and then the rest of the sulphite. Development times (in...

D72

A well known paper developer by Kodak, D72 provides good contrast with selected papers. Ingredient Quantity Metol 3.1 grams Sodium sulfite anhydrous 45 grams Hydroquinone 12 grams Sodium carbonate monohydrate 80 grams Potassium bromide 1.9 grams Water to make 1 liter...