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Focal Universal MQ - Atelierele Albe
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An all-around developer for negatives and positives, producing brilliant contrast. By varying the dilution, it may be used for dish or tank development. Recommended for all general work as a good single solution developer.

Sodium sulfite anhydrous
Sodium carbonate anhydrous
Potassium bromide
Water to make
Mix chemicals in order.

Making up: Dissolve the chemicals in the order given in about two-thirds the quantity of the water, which has been previously heated to 52°C. Add a pinch of sulphite to the solution before dissolving the metol. After all chemicals have completely dissolved, make the solution up to full volume.

The appearance of a milky turbidity is generally due to the hardness of the tap water used for making up. Allow the solution to stand overnight, then pour off the clear solution, leaving the sediment.


  1. When undiluted, the developer works rapidly and gives good contrast; in this form it is recommended for developing process negatives, X-ray films and all materials calling for high contrast.
  2. For dish development of plates and films normal dilution is 1:5. But it can be diluted between 1:3 and 1:7, according to the contrast desired. The higher the concentration, the more rapidly the developer works and the higher the contrast.
  3. For small and large tanks dilute 1:10 to 1:15.
  4. For gaslight contact papers dilute 1:2 to 1:3.
  5. For bromide enlarging papers dilute 1:5 to 1:7.

Times of development The average developing times for the above mentioned dilutions are as follows:

  1. 3–5 minutes
  2. 5–7 minutes
  3. 15–20 minutes
  4. 45–60 seconds
  5. 1.5–2 minutes.

Keeping qualities and use: Both the stock solution and the diluted ready-for-use solution keep well. The developer may be used repeatedly.